|Manufacturer:||General Dynamics Santa Barbara Sistemas|
|Product type:||Armoured Vehicles|
|Name:||Main battle tank|
Following delivery of the first 19 vehicles from France, Spain was building the AMX-30 MBT under licence from France from 1974, initially from components supplied by France, but gradually the Spanish content increased until about 85 per cent of the tank was built in Spain. A total of 19 tanks were supplied from France plus 10 AMX-30D ARVs, with 280 built under licence in Spain with final deliveries in 1983-84.
The Spanish tanks are almost identical to the French models but have an MG3S 7.62 mm machine gun for the commander and other minor differences. On Spanish vehicles the coaxial weapon is a 12.7 mm M2 machine gun. Production of the AMX-30 was undertaken by the Sevilla Artillery Factory of Santa Barbara, Empresa Nacional de Optica SA (ENOSA) providing the optical equipment, and Experiencias Industrials SA (EISA) the electrical and hydraulic equipment.
In 1980, Spain purchased the entire licence from Giat in order to continue development itself.
With the introduction of the German-supplied Leopard 2A4 and US-supplied M60 series MBTs no further enhancements are now planned for the AMX-30 ER1/EM2 MBTs of the Spanish Army.
With the introduction of Spanish built Leopard 2A5E MBTs it is expected that the AMX-30 ER1 and EM2 will be phased out of service.
In 1984, Spain signed a contract with Euromissile for the supply of 18 Roland 2 SAM systems and 414 missiles. Much of this work was carried out in Spain including manufacture of the AMX-30R launcher vehicle. The first Spanish Roland SAM system on an AMX-30 chassis was handed over to the Spanish Army late in 1988.
This upgrade was carried out by the Spanish Army and included the following:
(1) Replacement of the original transmission by a US Allison CD-850-6A transmission made under licence in Spain
(2) Slightly modified cooling system and overhauled engine
(3) Modified rear engine compartment with the top deck now 15 cm higher, modified hull floor and modified hull rear
(4) Driver has a new seat, a new instrument panel and a steering wheel instead of the original two tillers.
The Spanish AMX-30D ARVs and four AMX-30 Driver Training Tanks have also been modified in a similar manner, as have the 18 Roland SAM systems which have now been designated the AMX-30RE. There are 60 AMX-30 ER1s in service.
This is the most recent upgrade and has the new power pack, the new Hughes (now Raytheon Systems Company) computerised fire-control system and additional armour. The actual conversion was carried out by Santa Barbara with the engine'and transmission being manufactured under licence in Spain by Empresa Nacional Bazan.
The new power pack consists of the MTU MB 833 Ka-501 six-cylinder water-cooled, supercharged diesel engine developing 850 hp at 2,450 rpm coupled to a ZF LSG 3000 automatic transmission with four forward and two reverse gears. To accommodate the new power pack the rear engine top deck and exhaust have been modified.
The Hughes (Raytheon Systems Company) Mk 9 fire-control system includes a computerised ballistic computer, a mast-mounted sensor, a muzzle reference system, a laser range-finder and a HIRE thermal camera. The main armament is not stabilised in elevation or traverse. The tank commander now has a 12.7 mm machine gun.
The vehicle has also been fitted with a Halon fire extinguishing system in the engine compartment and a new explosion detection/suppression system in the crew compartment.
The suspension has been upgraded with new torsion bars and shock-absorbers and new side skirts fitted.
Explosive reactive armour developed by Santa Barbara will also be fitted to improve battlefield survivability.
The AMX-30 EM2 has a similar specification to the French Army AMX-30 except for the different power pack, a combat weight of 36.5 tonnes, a width of 3.22 m, a maximum road speed of 64 km/h and a road range of 400 km. There are 150 of these in service.
The Spanish Army has four of these vehicles which are used for driver training purposes. The turret has been removed and replaced by an observation cabin.
Production complete. In service with the Spanish Army. With the introduction of the Leopard 2 and M60 series MBTs into the Spanish Army, no further upgrades of the AMX-30 ER1 or AMX-30 EM2 MBTs are expected to be