The CV9030 infantry fighting vehicle was developed by the now BAE Systems Hägglunds of Sweden specifically for the export market.
The basic CV9030 chassis is similar to the CV9040 that is in service with the Swedish Army and covered in detail in a separate entry.
To meet the specific operational requirements of the Royal Norwegian Army the CV9030N has a number of improvements including a more powerful Scania diesel engine and the installation of a new BAE Systems Hägglunds two-man power-operated turret armed with a stabilised 30 mm ATK Gun Systems Company Bushmaster II Chain Gun.
In April 1994, the Royal Norwegian Army Materiel Command placed a contract with the now BAE Systems Hägglunds of Sweden worth almost SEK2 billion, covering the supply of 104 CV9030N infantry fighting vehicles.
The first four preproduction CV9030N vehicles were delivered early in 1996 to the Royal Norwegian Army for extensive user trials.
Within the Royal Norwegian Army the CV9030N was called Project 5033 and the following technical modifications were carried out:
Alteration of main armament to 30 mm Bushmaster II
Fastener for water can on track shelf
Tools in tool cabinet
Adapter for funnel, fuel (for tank up jerrycan)
Towing rope as on Leopard 1A5 NO MBT
Shackle as on Leopard 1A5 NO MBT
Eryx anti-tank guided missile installation
Devibration of thermal sight/launching unit for Eryx and ballistic armour plating
Change NBC filter to NATO standard
Changes to due to configuration freeze (37 items)
Dual component paint
Practice cartridge 30 mm 173 TP
Minimum distance fire-control system of 50 m
Prepared for separate maintenance of each battery group
Prepared for GPS
Prepared for laser warner
Fitted with ROVIS vehicle intercom system now manufactured by Chelton Defence Communications Limited
Fitted with Swedish Saab Systems UTAAS (Universal Tank and Anti-aircraft System) sighting system
Prepared engine for 666 hp power output
Change of IR camera
Electrical heated batteries
Of the 100 production vehicles ordered, 24 were delivered in 1998, 36 in 1999 and 40 in 2000. The four preproduction vehicles have been modified to full production standard and the last of these were delivered in 1999. It is expected that the Norwegian Army will place a contract for an additional batch of 26 CV9030N vehicles in the future.
The turret of the CV9030N was produced by Kvaerner Eureka in Norway, while final integration of the turret and the Swedish-built chassis was carried out by Moelv. Kvaerner Eureka and Moelv have now closed down.
Within BAE Systems Hägglunds, the Norwegian CV9030N are generally known as the CV90 Mk I while the more advanced Finnish and Swedish vehicles are known as the Mk II. The latest generation CV9035 is the Mk III.
Following an international competition, in mid-1999 the Swiss Army selected a further development of the CV9030 to meet its future operational requirements. Additional details are given under variants.
Late in 2000, the Finnish Defence Forces selected the CV9030 to meet its TA2000 requirement. The first contract was for 57 vehicles for delivery from 2002 to 2005. Additional details are given later in this entry.
In mid-2004, Finland placed a contract with Patria Hägglunds for an additional 45 vehicles for delivery from 2006 through to 2007 with a total value of GBP79 million. The value of the BAE Systems Hägglunds part of the contract is about GBP37 million.
The chassis has been supplied by BAE Systems Hägglunds with the turret being built in Finland and integrated with the chassis at the facilities of Patria Vehicles.
In December 2004 the Royal Netherlands Army awarded BAE Systems Hägglunds a EUR749 million contract for the supply of 184 CV9035 Mk III IFV/CV9035NL. Additional details are given later on in this entry.
In December 2005, Denmark ordered 45 CV9035 vehicles. Additional details are given later in this entry.
The hull of the CV9030N is of all-welded steel construction with the driver seated front left, power pack to his right, turret in the centre and offset to the left and troop compartment at the rear of the hull.
No details of the protection level of the CV9030N are available, but over the frontal arc the armour probably provides protection against penetration from 23 mm armour-piercing projectiles at least.
The well-sloped glacis plate and the vertical hull sides allow additional armour to be fitted, if required by the user, to improve battlefield survivability of the CV9030N.
The driver has a well-laid-out compartment and normally enters and leaves via a single-piece hatch cover above his position, which is hinged at the left. There are three integral day periscopes for driving when closed down, the centre one of which can be replaced by a passive periscope for driving at night.
The driver has a fully adjustable seat and steers the vehicle using a yoke-type steering wheel rather than tillers. As the transmission is fully automatic, driver fatigue and training is much reduced.
The power pack consists of Scania DI14 V-8 diesel developing 605 hp, coupled to a Perkins Engine Company X-300-5N fully automatic transmission with torque converter and lock up clutch giving a total of four forward and two reverse gears.
The well-sloped glacis plate can be quickly opened to allow access to the power pack compartment. To keep the profile of the CV9030N as low as possible the radiators are located in the right side of the hull at the rear. The engine compartment is fitted with a fire detection and suppression system as standard.
The complete power pack of the CV9030N can be removed from the vehicle in 15 minutes. The exhaust outlet is on the right side of the hull with the air inlet/outlet at the rear.
The upper part of the hull sides are used to stow fuel and subsystems of the CV9030N, for example, in the left side of the hull is the NBC pack and one of the battery packs, while in the right side of the hull is the cooling system.
Suspension system is of the torsion bar type with each side having seven dual rubber-tyred road wheels, drive sprocket at the front and idler at the rear. There are no track-return rollers. The upper part of the suspension is covered by a skirt.
The CV9030N is fitted with a semi-active track tensioning system as standard and this allows the driver to adjust both tracks at once without leaving his seat. Horstman Defence Systems rotary dampers are fitted at the first, second, sixth and seventh road wheel stations and give the CV9030N vehicle an improved ride across country.
The now BAE Systems, Steel Products Division (previously United Defense) tracks are 533 mm wide and this, together with the length of track in contact with the ground, gives a nominal ground pressure of 0.586 kg/cm2.
The two-man BAE Systems Hägglunds power-operated turret is of all-welded steel construction with the commander seated on the left and the gunner on the right, each of whom has an adjustable seat.
Both turret members have a single-piece hatch cover. The commander's hatch cover opens to the rear, the gunner's hatch cover opens vertically in two positions to allow observation from under the hatch cover. Both turret members can also leave the turret via the turret basket and troop compartment if required.
Turret traverse and weapon elevation are all-electric with manual controls for emergency use. Unlike the BAE Systems Bofors 40 mm cannon fitted to the CV9040 of the Swedish Army, the 30 mm cannon installed in the CV9030N is fully stabilised and can be aimed and fired whilst the vehicle is moving across country.
The commander has a SOPELEM sight with a ×1, ×16 magnification day and a thermal remote display from the gunner's sight and six day periscopes for all-round observation.
The gunner is provided with a Saab Systems UTAAS, which has ×1, ×8 with integrated laser range-finder and thermal channel, plus four day periscopes.
Main armament of the CV9030N selected by Norway is a 30 mm ATK Gun Systems Company Chain Gun with a 7.62 mm MG3 machine gun mounted coaxial to the left.
Other weapons can be fitted such as the German 30 mm Mauser MK 30 cannon or the 35 mm Bushmaster III cannon, if this were required by the customer. Finland and Switzerland have selected the ATK Gun Systems Company 30 mm/40 mm MK 44 Bushmaster cannon which is also installed in the US Marine Corps Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (previously known as the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle).
Two banks of three electrically operated grenade launchers are mounted either side of the turret covering the frontal arc and one BAE Systems Bofors Lyran illuminating grenade launcher can be mounted on the turret rear.
The infantry enters and leaves via a large door in the rear that opens to the right, which is provided with a single vision block with associated firing port in the centre.
The eight infantrymen are seated four each side facing each other, with each man having a bucket-type seat which is also provided with a seat belt.
The CV9030N has a different troop compartment arrangement from that of the Swedish Army with a single-piece hatch on the left side and a cupola on the right side which has six day periscopes for all-round observation and a single-piece hatch cover that opens to the rear.
In September 2003 the Norwegian Defence Logistics Organisation awarded a contract worth about GBP3 million (SEK40 million) to BAE Systems Hägglunds for the upgrade of a batch of 17 CV9030N vehicles
These upgraded vehicles have been equipped with extensive additional mine protection, an air-cooling system and a rear-view camera. The upgraded vehicles are used by the Norwegian Army, High Readiness command.
A wide range of variants of the CV9030N is available along similar lines to those of the CV9040 covered in a separate entry.
Late in 2000, the Swiss Parliament approved the acquisition of 186 Swedish BAE Systems Hägglunds CV9030CH Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFV).
Total value was around GBP300 million (SEK 4 billion) with deliveries running from 2002 through to 2005. While the Norwegian vehicles are referred to as the CV9030 Mk I by BAE Systems Hägglunds, the Swiss and Finnish vehicles are referred to as the CV9030 Mk II.
Late in 2002 the Swiss Army took delivery of the first batch of four pre-production CV9030CH.
Of the order for 186 vehicles about 85 per cent was in the CV9030CH IFV variant, with the remaining 15 per cent in the CV9030CH-COM command post vehicle for use at squadron level. There is also an option for an additional 124 CV9030CH, which will include command post vehicles for use at battalion and brigade level. This option has not been exercised.
Final integration and assembly of the CV9030CH was undertaken at the RUAG Land Systems facility at Thun, which built and integrated the turret assembly. The chassis is supplied by BAE Systems Hägglunds in Sweden.
In mid-August 2000, the now BAE Systems Hägglunds delivered the CV9030CH verification vehicle to Switzerland which included all of the modifications and new systems requested as a result of the user trials several years ago.
The CV9030CH was partly based on the CV9030N currently in service with Norway which ordered 104 units with final deliveries taking place later in 2000.
It featured many improvements, including built-in test equipment (BITE), battle management system and video links for commander, gunner, driver and squad leader. It was armed with the ATK Gun Systems Company 30 mm/40 mm MK 44 cannon, which were manufactured under licence by Oerlikon Contraves of Switzerland. There will be separate competition for the ammunition.
Gun control equipment is all electric, main armament and gunner's sight is stabilised, and the gunner and commander both have day/thermal sights.
For greater internal volume the rear troop compartment roof has been raised 140 mm and, rather than the large door fitted to all previous CV90s, the Swiss model has a power operated ramp. It also has a cupola with seven periscopes for the squad leader and the hatch can be raised to allow direct vision through the whole of the rear arc.
The CV9030 Mk II also includes a Hägglunds Vehicle Control System (HVCS). This gives, for the first time, BITE as standard, as well as a battle management system and video information system for the commander, gunner, driver and squad leader.
It is also fitted with a diesel auxiliary power unit that allows all of the electrical systems to be run with the main diesel engine switched off. All of the CV9030 Mk II feature appliqué passive armour, NBC system, air conditioning system and a fire detection and suppression system.
Late in 2000, the Finnish Defence Forces (FDFs) selected the CV9030 to meet its TA2000 operational requirement and ordered an initial of 57 vehicles under the designation CV9030FIN.
The first CV9030FIN was handed over to Finland in April 2002 and all vehicles were delivered by 2005. For this programme the prime contractor is Patria Hägglunds, which is jointly owned by Patria of Finland, and BAE Systems Hägglunds of Sweden.
The latter company send the chassis to Finland where the turret is built and installed on the vehicle. BAE Systems Hägglunds is responsible for systems integration and the total value of the contract is EUR210 million.
The CV9030FIN was specifically developed to meet the operational requirements of the FDF and main armament comprises the latest United States ATK Gun Systems Company 30/40 mm MK 44 Bushmaster cannon.
The Finnish version is chambered for 30 × 173 mm ammunition but can be upgraded to 40 mm Supershot. It carries 160 rounds of ready use 30 mm ammunition with a 7.62 mm PKT machine gun being mounted coaxial.
It also features a CAN network, BITE, information system, new man-machine interface, improved suspension, Scania DI 16 460 kW diesel engine and barrel camera with image intensifier added.
The advanced information system includes flat screens at crew stations, video network and preparation for the installation of a command and control system at a future date.
In mid-2004 an additional order was placed for a further 45 vehicles for delivery between 2006 and 2007.
CV9035 Mk III
Late in 2004, the Royal Netherlands Army awarded BAE Systems Hägglunds a EUR749 million contract for the supply of 184 CV9035 Mk III IFVs, with deliveries to run from 2007 through to 2010. This brought the total CV90 series order book to 1,125 units. The vehicle is also referred to as the CV9035NL.
These will be fitted with a two-person turret armed with the ATK Gun Systems Company 35 mm/50 mm Bushmaster III cannon and 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun. The Royal Netherlands Army is the first user of this weapon.
The original requirement was for 200 units but for cost reasons this was cut back to 184, of which 150 will be in the IFV configuration and 34 in the command and control model. The IFV model will have a crew of three and carry a squad of seven while the command vehicle will have a crew of three and carry a staff group of four.
The remaining 16 were to have been armoured recovery vehicles. This role will be taken up by Leopard 1 based armoured recovery vehicles.
The Royal Netherlands Army CV 9035NL have a number of significant improvements over earlier vehicles and a total of 100 appliqué armour kits will also be supplied. According to BAE Systems Hägglunds, the latest CV9035NL features enhanced firepower, survivability, mobility, ergonomics and advanced architecture with implemented C4I systems.
The main armament is laid onto the target using a computerised fire-control system which incorporates an ammunition programmer. The commander has a rotating cupola for maximum visibility and both commander and gunner have fully stabilised day and night sights fitted with third generation thermal cameras.
Early in 2005, BAE Systems Hägglunds selected Van Halteren Metall Systems and Technology Division of the Netherlands as the local main industry partner for the CV9035NL programme. The company is responsible for the complete assembly of the 184 turrets to be installed on these vehicles. It will also supply road wheels and suspension equipment for these vehicles.
In mid-2005, Thales Optronics of the Netherlands was selected to provide the full optronics package for the 184 vehicles under a contract worth EUR65 million.
The company will be supplying equipment under three separate contracts, one from BAE Systems Hägglunds for the commander's sight and two from Saab Systems. One of the latter will be for licenced production of the UTAAS fire-control system and the supply of the Thales thermal imaging camera.
For the commander's sight, Thales Optronics BV has customised the MT-DNGS day/night gunner and observation system. The Dutch company will assemble the MT-DNGS from components supplied from the UK and integrate the Claire mid-wave infra-red thermal imaging camera.
Thales Optronics BV will produce the complete UTAAS in the Netherlands and integrate the Catherine XP (Extended Performance) long-range infra-red camera from Thales of France, which will also be made in the Netherlands.
Swiss armour for Dutch CV9035
Late in 2005, Swiss company RUAG Land Systems was awarded a contract worth CHF13 million by BAE Systems Hägglunds to supply advanced passive armour systems for the CV9035NL infantry fighting vehicles ordered by the Royal Netherlands Army.
The contract covers the supply of 184 top-attack protection kits and 100 lightweight side protection kits with production starting in 2006.
The top-attack protection kit will be installed on the upper surfaces of the CV9035NL, including the turret roof and provides increased protection against top-attack weapons, such as artillery and rocket-delivered bomblets.
These bomblets are fitted with a small High-Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT) warhead, which are designed to penetrate the vulnerable upper surfaces of an armoured fighting vehicle.
The side protection kits will provide a higher level of protection against shell splinters. According to RUAG Land Systems, these kits are easy to install on armoured vehicles and are of a modular design that allow individual elements to be rapidly replaced under field conditions.
Late in 2005, following an international competition, BAE Systems Hägglunds was awarded a contract from Denmark worth SEK1.7 billion for the supply of 45 CV9035 IFVs for the Danish Army.
Denmark opted for the latest generation CV9035, for which the first customer was the Royal Netherlands Army (RNLA).
This is the best armed and protected CV90 IFV built to date. It is armed with an ATK Gun Systems Company 35 mm/50 mm Bushmaster III cannon and 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun.
The weapon system will be laid onto the target by the commander or gunner using a computerised fire-control system, which includes stabilised day/night sights. The gunner will be provided with a third-generation thermal imager. In addition to a crew of three (commander, gunner and driver), it will also carry seven infantry.
In Danish Army service it will be designated the CV9035DK and will replace the specialised M113 series vehicles fitted with a two-person turret armed with a 25 mm cannon.
All of the CV9035 will be in the IFV version, although a small batch will be in the command post role and fitted with additional communications equipment. At this time there is no Danish option for additional CV9035 IFVs or specialised variants, such as recovery or mortar carrier, although BAE Systems Hägglunds hopes that additional orders will be placed in the future.
Under the terms of the contract, BAE Systems Hägglunds supply the complete CV9035 chassis to Danish company Hydrema Export A/S.
Hydrema Export A/S will establish a Complete Turret Assembly (CTA) facility, which will build and test the two-person turret, integrate the turret onto the chassis and then deliver the complete vehicle to the Danish Army. The vehicles are being delivered to the Danish Army between August 2007 and late 2009.
A key requirement was the industrial offset that is being met through the CTA facility and increased industrial participation through life support for maintenance and future upgrades.
AMOS 120 mm mortar carrier
While the Swedish Army has taken delivery of all of its CV9040 ICVs, BAE Systems Hägglunds has now built 40 chassis, which will in the future be fitted with the Patria Hägglunds AMOS twin 120 mm Advanced Mortar Turret. Within the Swedish Army this programme is called the SSG 120. Additional details of the CV90 with AMOS are provided in the entry for the Bofors/Hägglunds Combat Vehicle 90.
The first customer for AMOS is the Finnish Defence Force who have ordered 24 units (four preproduction plus 20 production systems) which will be fitted onto the new Patria Vehicles Armoured Modular Vehicle (AMV).
In mid-2006 the Swedish Defence Material Administration placed an order for two twin 120 mm AMOS turret systems which will be completed in 2010 and delivered to the Swedish Army the following year. This will be installed on the CV9040 chassis already supplied.
RAFAEL CV9030 armour package
In late 2005 a BAE Systems Hägglunds CV9030 Mk II IFV was shown fitted with the latest generation insensitive reactive armour from the RAFAEL Armament Development Authority.
A number of CV90 users have already upgraded their vehicles with a new passive armour package to provide a higher level of protection against medium calibre Kinetic Energy (KE) attack.
Operational experience has shown that there is now a need for a higher level of protection through 360 degrees against a wider range of threat weapons.
These include the widely deployed Russian RPG-7 (rocket propelled grenade) which is fitted with a High-Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT) warhead, or Chemical Energy (CE) as it is also referred to.
Against this background a CV9030 Mk II IFV was fitted with the latest generation insensitive reactive armour developed by RAFAEL.
This will enable BAE Systems Hägglunds to offer current and future operators of the CV9030 IFV a complete range of passive and reactive armour systems to meet current and future operational requirements.
According to RAFAEL Armament Development Authority their new generation insensitive armour provides protection through a full 360 degrees against not only the CE warhead of the RPG-7 but also KE attack, high-speed artillery and road side bomb fragments.
The new armour package has been designed to be installed on tracked and wheeled armoured vehicles and uses an innovative low burning rate explosive. This is an inert material during transportation, storage and maintenance but when hit by a CE warhead releases its full energy.