|Manufacturer:||NORINCO - China North Industries Group Corporation - CNGC|
|Product type:||Armoured Vehicles|
PGZ95 (also known as Type 95) is the self-propelled anti-aircraft artillery (SPAAA) system for low-level air defence. The system was designed and developed by the Northwest Institute of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering based at Xianyang, Shaanxi province. The system entered service with the PLA ground forces in the late-1990s for the air defence role in armoured troops at brigade and regiment level. The weapon system has also been marketed by the state-owned arms trade company NORINCO to potential foreign customers.
The SPAAA system, once known as Type 90-II or Type 90-III in development stage, may have benefited from the Italian SIDAM-25 technology. The SIDAM-25 is fitted with four Oerlikon Contraves 25mm KBA cannons. The PRC reportedly obtained at least one SIDAM-25 turret in the mid-1980s. The 25mm cannon of the PGZ95 was based on the Type 87 towed 25mm AAA gun introduced in the mid-1980s.
Development of a SPAAA intended to provide air defence for armoured troops began in the mid-1980s. Initially it was designed as a semi-automated system, with a primitive electro-optic (TV) director for day time operation. Later the PLA demanded the system to be fully automated, with both TV and radar tracking, a computerised fire-control with laser rangefinder input, and the ability to fire on the move. Following the 1990s Gulf War, the PLA issued refreshed requirements, which demanded the system to have all-weather, day/night operation capability and the integration of the air defence missile for longer range engagement.
The PGZ95 was first revealed to the public during the 1999 national day military parade held in Beijing, while it may have reached initial operational capability (IOC) few years earlier. The PGZ95 is much more capable than the previous indigenous SPAAA designs. The system can operate in day/night, all-weather conditions, and can be added with four QW-2 short-range SAM to form a SPAAA/SAM system that capable of engaging all threat targets, including fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The weapon system is found in the air defence company of an armoured brigades or regiment.
The 25mm cannon, which was already in service with the PLA in other applications before the introduction of the PGZ95, has a cyclic rate of fire of 600 to 800 rounds per minute per barrel. About 1,000 rounds of 25mm ammunition are carried, and the empty cartridge cases are ejected outside of the turret. The system can be reloaded via an automatic loading mechanism. The 25mm cannon also have a secondary role against ground targets and would be able to destroy most light armoured fighting vehicles.
The PGZ95 can be fitted with four QW-2 IR-homing, short-range surface-to-air missiles. The missile is derived from the shoulder-launched variant QW-2, which is very similar to the Russian Igla-1 (SA-16 Gimlet). This is claimed to have an effective altitude from 10 to 3,500m and slant ranges of 500 to 6,000m. In a typical target engagement the SAM would be used to engage targets at longer ranges, the 25mm cannon being used to engage aircraft and helicopters at ranges of up to 2,500m and an altitude of 2,000m.
An electro-optic director mounted on the forward part of the turret includes a TV tracking camera, infrared tracking camera and a laser rangefinder which feeds information to the onboard fire-control computer. This calculates the weapon-laying data, and when the target is within range the gunner opens fire. The gunner also has a joystick with which to lay the weapons onto the target.
The TV tracker has a maximum automatic tracking range of 6,000m while the infrared tracking camera has a maximum range of 5,000m. The laser range-finder is quoted as having a minimum range of 500m, maximum range of 5,500m and is accurate to +/- 5m.
The PGZ95 is also fitted with a CLC-1 low altitude target search radar installed on the roof of the armament turret. The radar is working at S-band and has a detection range of 11km. The radar antenna is mounted on top of the turret. When the vehicle is travelling, the radar antenna can be folded down forwards to reduce the overall height of the system.
System reaction time depends on a number of factors. According to NORINCO, in the radar search mode this is 10 seconds while in the optical mode it is about 6 seconds.
The PGZ95 consists of a tracked chassis on the roof of which has been installed a new one-person, power-operated turret armed with four 25mm cannons and four QW-2 SAMs. The vehicle is fully armour protected. A bank of four electrically operated forward-firing smoke grenade launchers is mounted either side on the lower part of the turret for self-protection.
The PGZ95 has a crew of three (commander, gunner and driver), a combat weight of 22.5 tonnes and a maximum operational range of 450km. The commander is seated to the immediate rear of the driver and is in overall command of the engagement, receiving target information from the battery command post.
The PGZ95 SPAAA is part of a complete mobile air-defence system that also includes a battery command vehicle. Mounted on a similar chassis, the command vehicle has a raised superstructure at the rear hull to provide greater internal volume. The vehicle can typically be used to control up to 6~8 SPAAA/SAM systems.
Mounted on top of the command vehicle is a S-band CLC-2 PD surveillance radar with a maximum range of 45km and a maximum altitude of up to 4.5km. The CLC-2 search radar feeds information to the data processing system that in turn allocates target information to the individual SPAAG/SAM units. Communications equipment installed in the battery command vehicles allows it to transmit information in a digital form up to 5km, by standard radio up to 15km and by wire up to 500m.
The command vehicle is also provided with a navigation system and an auxiliary power unit needed to power the additional electronics mounted in the vehicle. The commander is seated to the rear of the driver and mounted above his cupola is a manually operated 12.7mm anti-aircraft machine gun (AAMG). A bank of four electrically operated smoke grenade launchers is mounted either side of the forward part of the raised superstructure.
A typical PGZ95 battery would consist of 6 SPAAA/SAM systems, one battery command vehicle, three ammunition re-supply vehicles, one battery testing vehicle and one power supply vehicle, all of which are mounted on the same 6x6 cross-country truck chassis. The crews of the PGZ95 can also be trained using a simulator for the gunner.