The Combat Vehicle 90 (CV90) was designed to meet the specific operational requirements of the Swedish Army for a vehicle with improved armour, mobility and firepower for use by the armed forces' mechanised/armoured units.
The Combat Vehicle 90 was jointly developed by the now BAE Systems Hägglunds (originally Hägglunds Vehicle) and the now BAE Systems Bofors under contract to the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (the FMV).
Development of the CV90 started in 1984 and, following trials with an unarmed automotive test chassis, five prototype vehicles and turrets were built for extensive trials under a wide range of operational and environmental conditions.
Following trials, the Swedish Army placed its first contract for the Strf 9040, now called the CV9040, in March 1991, with the first production vehicle, a CV9040, handed over to the Swedish Army on 1 November 1993.
In mid-1993, the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV) placed its second production contract, worth SEK1,300 million, for a further four versions of the CV90 family of vehicles for the Swedish Army.
This second contract covered the 40 mm air defence version (TriAD), the CV90 Forward Observation Vehicle (FOV), the CV90 Forward Command Vehicle (FCV) and the CV90 Armoured Recovery Vehicle (ARV), with deliveries taking place from 1995-96 onwards.
In April 1994, the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration placed its third order for a further 150 CV9040 vehicles.
Late in 1997 the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV) placed an order worth SEK800 million for an additional 87 Combat Vehicle 90 vehicles in the improved CV9040 version armed with the now BAE Systems Bofors 40 mm L/70 gun.
This was the fourth Swedish Army order for the CV90 family of vehicles. The most significant improvements to the fourth production batch was the installation of a stabilisation system for the 40 mm L/70 gun to enable moving targets to be engaged with a high first round hit probability. A new suspension system is fitted for improved cross-country mobility.
The last CV90 series vehicle was handed over to the Swedish Army on 24 September 2002. Total value of the programme was SEK13.7 billion (GBP940 million) and a total of 509 vehicles were delivered. An additional 40 chassis have been supplied, which will eventually be used for the AMOS twin 120 mm turret mortar.
Prime contractor for the CV90 family of vehicles for the Swedish Army is HB Development AB.
The Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV) awards contracts to HB Development AB, which in turn awards contracts to BAE Systems Bofors and the now BAE Systems Hägglunds.
BAE Systems Bofors built the 40 mm turrets and installed them on the chassis supplied by BAE Systems Hägglunds, with the complete system then being delivered to the Swedish Army. BAE Systems Hägglunds builds all the CV90 chassis, as well as having complete responsibility for the armoured recovery member of the family.
In the Swedish Army, the CV90 is issued to new mechanised brigades that have been formed for operations in northern Sweden and in infantry and armoured brigades. Each CV90 battalion has three mechanised companies with CV90s, one combined staff and mortar company and one logistics company.
Following extensive trials between the CV9030, the Austrian/Spanish ASCOD and the US BAE Systems, Ground Systems Division (at that time United Defense) M2A2 Bradley infantry fighting vehicle, in April 1995 Norway selected the CV9030 to meet its future requirements.
Following an international competition, in 1999 the Swiss Army selected the CV9030 CH to meet its future requirements with 186 vehicles now delivered.
Finland has ordered 57 vehicles under the local designation of the CV9030 FIN with deliveries running from 2002 through to 2005. Finland ordered an additional 45 vehicles in mid-2004.
In December 2004 the Netherlands placed an order for 184 CV90 series vehicles for delivery between 2007 and 2010.
In December 2005, Denmark placed an order for 45 CV9035 to the same build standard as the Netherlands vehicles. These will be delivered from 2007 through to 2009.
Description (CV9040 Infantry Fighting Vehicle)
The hull of the CV90 is of all-welded steel armour construction with the driver seated front left, the power pack to his right, the turret in the centre and offset 200 mm to the left, and the troop compartment at the rear of the hull.
No details of the protection level of the CV90 are available, but armour over the frontal arc probably provides protection against penetration from 23 mm projectiles at least. The well-sloped glacis plate and the vertical hull sides allow additional armour to be fitted if required by the user.
According to the manufacturers, battlefield survivability of the CV90 is also enhanced by its low profile and compact size, minimal radar and infrared signature, low noise level and reduced vulnerability to electromagnetic pulses. The smooth external features of the CV90 make the vehicle easier to decontaminate.
The driver has a well laid out compartment and normally enters and leaves via a single-piece hatch cover above his position which is hinged at the left. There are three integral day periscopes for driving when closed down, the centre one of which can be replaced by a passive periscope for driving at night.
The driver has a fully adjustable seat and steers the vehicle using a yoke-type steering wheel rather than tillers. As the transmission is fully automatic, driver fatigue and training is much reduced.
The power pack consists of a Swedish-built Scania DI 14 V-8 diesel developing 550 hp, coupled to a Perkins Engines Company X-300-5N fully automatic transmission with torque converter and lock up clutch and a total of four forward and two reverse gears. The engine has further growth potential up to approximately 600 hp. The latest CV9030 has a Scania D116 V-8 four-cycle diesel developing 680 hp coupled to a Perkins Engines Company X-300-8 fully automatic transmission.
The glacis plate can be quickly opened to allow access to the power pack compartment. To keep the profile of the CV90 as low as possible, the radiators are located in the right side of the hull at the rear. The engine compartment is fitted with a fire detection and suppression system as standard.
The complete power pack can be removed from the CV90 in 15 minutes. The exhaust outlet is on the right side of the hull with the air inlet/outlet at the rear.
The upper part of the hull sides are used to stow fuel and subsystems of the CV90; for example, in the left side of the hull is the NBC pack and one of the battery packs while in the right side of the hull is the cooling system.
Suspension is of the torsion bar type with either side having seven dual rubber-tyred road wheels, drive sprocket at the front, and idler at the rear with no track-return rollers. A track tension adjusting system is fitted as standard on the CV90 allowing the driver to adjust both tracks at once without leaving the seat. Friction dampers are fitted at the first, second, sixth and seventh road wheel stations.
The now BAE Systems, Steel Products Division tracks are 533 mm wide and this, together with the length of track in contact with the ground, gives a nominal ground pressure of 0.53 kg/cm2.
The two-man power-operated turret is of all-welded steel construction, with the commander seated on the left and the gunner on the right, with both crew members having a single-piece hatch cover that opens to the rear.
Turret traverse and weapon elevation are all-electric with manual controls provided for emergency use.
The commander's cupola has six day periscopes to give all-round observation. The front periscope is provided with a wiper and an armoured shutter and, if required, this can be replaced by an enhanced sighting system.
The gunner has a Saab Systems Universal Tank and Anti-Aircraft System (UTAAS) sight with an armoured shutter. The CV90 version has both day and night channels and a laser range-finder. The thermal imager is provided by Kollsman together with the fire-control computer.
Main armament of the CV9040 comprises a 40 mm BAE Systems Bofors 40/70B cannon with the ammunition being fed from underneath and the empty cartridge cases ejected out of the roof. The magazine holds a total of 24 rounds in three sections of eight rounds with a carousel of 48 rounds under the turret floor. The ammunition mix depends on the tactical situation, but if required each of the three magazines could hold a different type of ammunition with the change from one magazine to another accomplished by a hydraulic device. The 40 mm gun can be aimed and fired by the commander or gunner selecting single shots at 60 rds/min, or automatic with 300 rds/min cyclic rate of fire. Maximum effective ranges are 2,000 m for ground targets and 4,000 m for air targets.
Types of BAE Systems Bofors 40 mm ammunition that can be fired by the 40/70B gun include the well-known BAE Systems Bofors PFHE (PreFragmented High Explosive) Mk 2 for use against aircraft and helicopters, HE-T (High Explosive - Tracer) for engaging ground targets and TP-T (Target Practice - Tracer). It can also fire the MultiPurpose Tracer (MP-T) and the new Prefragmented Programmable Proximity-Fuzed (3P) round.
For engaging combat vehicles at ranges of 2,000 m, BAE Systems Bofors developed the APFSDS-T (Armour-Piercing Fin-Stabilised Discarding Sabot - Tracer) round.
In the first quarter of 2002, BAE Systems Bofors was awarded a contract worth SEK50 million by the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV). This was for the development of a new generation Armour-Piercing Fin-Stabilised Discarding Sabot (APFSDS) round for the BAE Systems Bofors 40 mm L/70 cannon, installed in the CV9040 IFV of the Swedish Army.
This new APFSDS round, being developed by BAE Systems Bofors and QinetiQ of the UK, will have enhanced armour penetration characteristics over the currently deployed APFSDS-T round which was developed some time ago. The latter has a muzzle velocity of 1,470 m/s and will penetrate 120 mm of conventional steel armour at normal combat ranges. The BAE Systems Bofors APFSDS-T Mk II and the latest production 3P round are of the IM type.
The recently placed contract with BAE Systems Bofors also includes an upgrade of the turret communications system.
First production CV9040 vehicles had the BAE Systems Bofors 40 mm 40/70 Ba gun, but final production CV9040B vehicles have the 40 mm 40/70 Bc weapon. The difference between the two versions is that the latest Bc provides higher hit probabilities in the stabilised mode due to its controlled strike-pin release.
A 7.62 mm M/39 machine gun is mounted coaxially on the left side of the turret and this can be fired by the commander or gunner. Mounted either side of the turret is a bank of three Nexter Systems (previously Giat Industries) GALIX grenade launchers which can fire a wide range of grenades. Fitted on the turret rear are two BAE Systems Bofors Lyran 71 mm mortar tubes which can fire illuminating bombs out to a maximum range of 1,600 m. In addition, the turret is fitted with a GPS system and a KVH compass.
The infantry enters and leaves via a large door in the rear of the hull that opens to the right. The eight infantrymen are seated four each side facing each other with each man having a bucket-type seat. These seats can be quickly folded up to allow the CV9040 to carry cargo.
Over the top of the troop compartment is a spring-loaded five-part roof hatch, which opens to the left (three parts) and to the right (two parts).
Battle management system
In 2005 the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration selected Saab Systems as the main contractor for the battle management system for the Swedish Armed Forces, which is called the Stridledningssystem Bataljon (SLB).
The initial unit to be equipped with SLB is expected to be a CV9040 mechanised infantry battalion. Eventually, SLB is expected to equip all units at battalion level and below, amphibious forces and air and naval base defence units.
The current schedule calls for SLB Phase 1 to be developed for test, training and simulation, with delivery due in the third quarter of 2009.
Phase 2 will involve the equipment for the first CV9040 battalion and should be completed by the third quarter of 2009.
If all goes to plan, Phase 3 is expected to run between mid-2009 and the third quarter of 2010 and should deliver another SLB set for another battalion, perhaps equipped with Patria Vehicles (6 × 6) APCs.
Phase 4 is tentatively planned for the 2011-2013 period, within which new types of battalion and functionalities will be added.
First production CV9040 IFVs for the Swedish Army were fitted with the Saab Systems stabilised UTAAS gunner's sight with day channel, integrated laser range-finder and ballistic reticule. One in three vehicles were also fitted with a thermal imaging channel. They also have 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun and Nexter Systems (previously Giat Industries) Galix grenade launchers.
Under a second add on contract, a fire-control computer was added for increased first round hit probability against stationary and moving targets and preparation to fire the advanced 3P GP round which is currently only fired from the CV9040 TriAD.
A third add-on contract gives the CV9040 a fire on the move capability, this version is called the CV9040A and entered production in 1997.
The forth add-on contract also provides for an increased hit capability and includes a new elevation drive, coincidence window (closed breech firing) and improved ergonomics for the commander and gunner (especially the gunner's ability to use the full functions of the fire-control systems).
Additional improvements under this contract include a back-up sight, prepared for fitting of the BAE Systems Bofors Lemur sight, prepared for fitting of the VCCS (Vehicle Command and Control System) (FUM/SLB) and improvements to the suspension system. These vehicles are designated the CV9040B and first production vehicles were completed in the autumn of 1999.
In the future it is expected that all CV9040A IFV will be updated to a common CV9040B build standard with the obvious training and logistic advantages.
Following demonstrations of a prototype turret developed by BAE Systems Bofors as a private venture, the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV) awarded BAE Systems Bofors a contract for three commander's roof mounted stabilised sights called Lemur.
The Lemur stabilised sight can be configured as required by the customer with the Swedish Army version having a day/thermal capability with integrated laser range-finder. This will enable the CV9040B to carry out hunter killer target engagements under day/night conditions.
In a typical target engagement the commander would observe and track the target, which will then be handed over to the gunner who would carry out the actual target engagement. The commander would then start to acquire a second target while the first target is being engaged. The commander also has a coincidence window back up sight.
The CV9040B incorporates a number of other improvements including the Saab Systems developed Vehicle Command and Control System (VCCS).
The VCCS is a computerised command and control system which has been designed to assist the commander to make faster, better and more informed decisions based on all relevant data from a combat radio network, fire control system and where applicable, integrated warning sensors.
It provides a single display unit for tactical information and images from available sensors presented as overlays to a background digital map. The VCCS (FUM/SLB) is a tactical command and control system for the battalion level and is not the same system installed on the Leopard 2s (Strv 122) of the Swedish Army.
Up-armoured CV9040 IFV
Early in 2001 it was revealed that the Swedish Defence Materiel Agency (FMV) had awarded a contract valued at about SEK200 million (about GBP14 million) for the supply of passive armour kits. These have now been installed on 55 CV9040 infantry fighting vehicles (IFV), currently in service with the Swedish Army.
These CV9040 IFV were returned to the BAE Systems Hägglunds facility at Ornsköldsvik, Northern Sweden, where they were fitted with the new passive armour package supplied by IBD of Germany.
This consists of additional passive armour on the hull front, sides and floor as well as the turret, with internal spall liners also being fitted to minimise possible damage from fragments and projectiles that penetrate the hull or turret armour.
These up-armoured CV9040s were then re-delivered to the Swedish Army through 2002 for use by the Swedish international rapid reaction forces.
A prototype of this has been built and tested by the Swedish Army but is not being procured.
TriAD (Autonomous Armoured Air Defence) System
This was originally designated the Lvkv A2 but is now known as the TriAD, with the first prototype being handed over for trials with the Swedish Army early in 1992.
The TriAD has not replaced an existing vehicle within the Swedish Army and will be deployed at platoon/battery level.
This has the same hull as the CV9040 but is modified for air defence, for example anti-helicopter and anti-aircraft roles. A total of 234 rounds of 40 mm ammunition is carried, 24 rounds of which are for ready use with 48 carried in the carousel magazine.
Turret traverse is a full 360° with weapon elevation from -8 to +50°. The commander is seated on the left and the gunner on the right, with the latter having the UTAAS sight as in the first version of the CV9040. The gunner's UTAAS sight has magnifications of ×1 and ×7, a laser range-finder plus a monitor for the thermal image camera mounted on the right side of the turret. In addition, the gunner has three day observation periscopes.
This version has a seven-man crew consisting of the driver in the hull front, the vehicle commander and gunner in the turret and the other four men in the rear of the vehicle, which, unlike the CV9040, does not have overhead roof hatches. The other four crew members are the radar operator, combat controller, external co-ordinator and observer/loader. Three of the latter are seated on the right side of the hull, these are the radar operator, combat controller and external co-ordinator.
Mounted on the rear of the turret is the radar, which is the French Thales Air Defence Gerfaut system. The Gerfaut radar has a very high detection rate against aircraft and helicopters with the operator selecting the aircraft or helicopter detection mode.
An IFF system is fitted as standard on this version of the CV90 vehicle and a maximum of six targets can be prioritised. If required by the tactical situation, the radar can be switched off and target information received from another source.
The PPI can be set for a range of 7 or 15 km and displays speed, range and course for each target tracked. Automatic tracking is performed after marking the targets by means of a joystick. Automatic threat evaluation is performed by the fire-control computer and displayed on the PPI.
The combat controller analyses the aerial threat situation based on external sources and radar information. In combat he confirms the priority and permits engagement. The Fire-Control Computer (FCC) slews the weapon and sight to the target bearing and performs search in elevation.
The gunner selects ammunition type and function mode for the 3P rounds and performs electro-optic tracking of the target. The FCC predicts lead angles and provides target data for programming of the 40 mm 3P rounds.
When within effective range of the system, the gunner opens fire. Typically a burst of four rounds would be fired to engage the aircraft or helicopter.
In 2003 it was revealed that BAE Systems Bofors had recently completed a new Technology Demonstrator (TD) of the TriAD.
Work on a planned mid-life upgrade of the TriAD started in 2000 and user trials were completed in mid-2003.
The purpose of this TD was to test a major improvement of target data communication that enables the TriAD to engage both air and ground defence targets without coming to a halt. This will increase reaction time, which is considered of key importance when engaging aerial targets such as attack helicopters.
This improvement will enable the TriAD to keep up with other elements of the battlegroup such as the Leopard 2 tank and CV9040 infantry combat vehicles (ICV).
According to BAE Systems Bofors, the use of a TD is considered more cost-effective than earlier use of a series of prototypes before long-term commitments are made.
In addition to providing the ability to fire on the move, major improvements in the Saab Systems UTAAS were also be tested.
The CV9040 normally fires two types of ammunition, 3P and Armour Piercing Fin Stabilised Discarding Sabot - Tracer (APFSDS-T). The former is an advanced round which is programmed as it leaves the weapon. The APFSDS-T round is optimised for the engagement of armoured targets.
CV90 Forward Command Vehicle (FCV)
This is the command post version of the CV90 and has extensive communications equipment, seats and equipment for the command staff. This has a two-man turret armed with a 7.62 mm MG. The development contract for this version was awarded in April 1990 and production commenced in mid-1995. Production of this version is now complete.
CV90 Forward Observation Vehicle (FOV)
This FOV is also referred to as the Epbv. It has an extensive array of sensors and communications equipment and is fitted with a two-man 7.62 mm MG turret.
The development contract for this version was awarded in April 1990. Production deliveries commenced in mid-1995. This version is very similar to the forward command vehicle. Production of this version is now complete.
CV90 Armoured Recovery Vehicle (ARV)
The Armoured Recovery Vehicle (ARV) is designated the Bgbv and was developed by the now BAE Systems Hägglunds which previously developed the Bgbv 82 ARV.
The CV90 ARV is fitted with two ITAG hydraulic winches for recovery operations, a hydraulic crane and a front-mounted dozer blade to stabilise the vehicle during recovery or lifting operations. Armament comprises a cupola-mounted 7.62 mm MG.
Trials with the prototype, based on one of the original CV90 prototype vehicles, were completed in 1993. In June 1993 FMV placed a production order and first deliveries were made in mid-1995.
The first prototype of this was completed in mid-1994. It is a modified CV90 chassis with the Nexter Systems (previously Giat Industries) 105 mm TML turret. So far this remains at the prototype stage.
As of August 2007, this remained at the prototype stage.
AMOS 120 mm mortar system
Full details of this are given in a separate entry.
Other 40 mm turret applications
For trials purposes it has been proposed that this turret could be fitted on the South African BAE Systems Land Systems OMC Rooikat (8 × 8) chassis. It has already been installed on the Swiss MOWAG ACV (10 × 10) chassis.