|Manufacturer:||Engenheiros Especializados S.A. ENGESA|
|Product type:||Armoured Vehicles|
|Name:||Fire support vehicle|
EE-9 "Cascavel" armored reconnaissance vehicle was developed by Brazilian company "Engesa" alongside with EE-11 armored personnel carrier. Both vehicles have a number of common parts and devices. EE-9 serial production began in 1974 and since 1975 vehicle was supplied to Brazilian Armed Forces and exported to a number of countries. It is used by Bolivian, Columbian, Chile, Qartar armed forces. Some African, Near East, and Asian countries show interest to obtain such vehicle for their armed forces. Vehicles success in world weapon market is determined by its high simple and reliable design, ability to use "Cascavel" for reconnaissance, or support infantry, and fight against enemy main battle tanks.
"Cascavel" is built using main battle tank arrangement scheme. Engine compartment is placed in the rear part of the hull, combat compartment - in the middle, and driving compartment is placed in the front. Vehicle crew consists from driver, commander, and gunner.
The hull and the turret are made from welded multi-layer armor, developed by "Engesa". Such armor is made from two layers of steel: external layer is rigid, while internal layer is less rigid, but more tough. Brazilian research showed that such armor design increases vehicles armored defense. Such defense additionally protects crew from vehicles armor shells, appearing after direct hit of anti-tank gun, guided missile, or grenade launcher. Frontal armor plates are made from 16 mm armor and defend vehicle from large caliber machine guns. Other hull parts defend vehicle against firearms bullets, artillery projectiles and small caliber mines shells.
Reconnaissance vehicles main armament is placed in a two seat armored rotating turret, placed in the combat compartment. EE-9 Mk.II vehicle, used with Brazilian armed forces is fitted with 37-mm gun, while export modification Mk.III has turret mount with 90-mm gun, used in French Armored Reconnaissance vehicle AML-90. Recently produced standard EE-9 Mk.IV has EC-90 half automatic 90-mm gun produced in Brazil under license. Main gun is reloaded manually. It's rate of fire is 6 rounds per minute. It has elevation range from -8º to +15º. Main gun fires two type simple projectiles: with armor-piercing or High Explosion Fragmentation combat elements. However it is possible to fire armor-piercing-cumulative projectiles with compressing warheads fitted with plastic explosives, smoke, fragmentation or case-shot projectiles, fitted with sparrow shape combat elements. Vehicle's combat load consists from 44 projectiles. 12 of them are placed in the turret, while the others are in the hull.
Additional armament consists from coaxial 7.62-mm machine gun, mounted in the turret, 12.7-mm anti aircraft machine gun and smoke grenade launchers, placed from the both sides of the turret.
Vehicle commander and gunner both can execute fire from the main gun. Commander's seat is placed left from the main gun and gunners - right. They both use combined day and night periscope sight. Vehicle commander additionally is equipped with day and night panoramic sight.
Gunner has one periscope observation device, while commander use three similar observation devices, built-in in his turret. "Cascavel" is fitted with laser rangefinder, placed on the main gun. "Engesa" company is recently developing a stabilized in both planes fire control system, which will allow execute sighted fire on the move.
EE-9 "Cascavel" modifications Mk.II, III, IV are powered by 6V-53N V-type 6-cylinder engines, developed by "Detroit Diesel". Engine has maximum power of 212 h.p. Vehicle modifications Mk.V, VI, VII are powered by OM352A 190 h.p. diesel engines, developed by "Mercedes Benz". All modifications are fitted with the same MT-643 automatic hydromechanic transmission, developed by USA company "Allison".
"Cascavel" chassis is based on 6 x 6 wheeled formula. Vehicle use wheels with 14.50 x 20 mm dimensions. Frontal wheels have independent suspension, based on springs and hydraulic absorbers. Rear both axis are tightly connected using "boomerang" principle. Rear axis pare has a large vertical step in 0.9 m. Wheels are fitted with centralized air pressure system allows to increase significantly overall vehicle cross-country performance. "Cascavel" manages 0.6 m vertical step, 1 m wide trench and 1 m depth water obstacle. Vehicle has no movement on water abilities.
EE-9 has a maximum road speed in 100 km/h.
Mainly it's internal equipment depends from customer requirements. Standard vehicle variant is fitted with radio set, tank communication device, fire-extinguishing sources. There is ability to place Nuclear, Biological, Chemical protection system, air conditioner or heater.
EE-9 "Cascavel" armored reconnaissance vehicle was used in combat actions by Iraq Armed Forces during the Gulf War.
The EE-9 (6 x 6) Cascavel was designed by ENGESA (Engenheiros Especial izados SA) to meet the requirements of the Brazilian Army. Design work began in July 1970 after the company had completed the designing of the EE-11 (6x6) armoured personnel carrier, with the first prototype being completed in November of that year. Following trials with prototype vehicles, a preproduction order for 10 vehicles was placed by the Brazilian Army, which named the vehicle the CRR (Carro de Reconhecimento Sobre Rodas). These were delivered between 1972 and 1973.
Production of the EE-9 began at a new plant at Sao Jose dos Campos in 1974 with the first production vehicles being delivered the same year. The production vehicles were slightly longer and wider than the prototypes and had a different wheelbase.
First production vehicles delivered to the Brazilian Army were fitted with a turret armed with 37 mm guns removed from old American-supplied M3 Stuart light tanks, but first production vehicles for export were fitted with a French CNMP-Berthiez (now Hispano-Suiza) 90 mm H 90 turret.
The EE-9 Cascavel shares many components with the EE-11 Urutu (6 x 6) armoured personnel carrier and many automotive components used in both vehicles are standard commercial parts available worldwide.
The ENGESA company is no longer trading but large numbers of EE-9 vehicles remain in service in many parts of the world.
Powered by a Perkins 6357 V engine coupled to a manual Clark transmission, no central tyre-pressure regulation system. Did not enter production.
First production model armed with a 37 mm gun, Mercedes-Benz OM 352A 170 hp diesel engine, Clark manual transmission, 12 V (hull) and 24 V (turret) electrical system, no central tyre-pressure regulation system. These were built only forthe Brazilian Army and most have now been rebuilt with the ENGESA ET-90 turret armed with a locally built 90 mm EC-90 gun based on the Belgian MECAR weapon.
First production model for export, Mercedes-Benz OM 352A 170 hp diesel, Allison Transmission AT-540 automatic transmission, 12 V (hull) and 24 V (turret) electrical system, central tyre-pressure regulation system and fitted with a French Hispano-Suiza H 90 turret with a Giat Industries 90 mm gun.
First production models completed in 1977 and fitted with an ENGESA ET-90 turret with an ENGESA EC-90 gun, Detroit Diesel Model 6V-53 developing 212 hp coupled to an Allison Transmission fully automatic transmission Model MT-643, 24 V (turret) electrical system and a central tyre-pressure regulation system.
Powered by Mercedes-Benz OM 352A diesel developing 190 hp coupled to a fully automatic Allison Transmission AT-540 or AT-545 automatic transmission, ENGESA ET-90 turret 24 V (hull and turret) electrical system, disc brakes and a central tyre-pressure regulation system. This system enables the driver to change the tyre pressure from his seat to suit the type of ground being crossed. For example, when travelling on roads the tyre pressure is 4 kg/cm2, crosscountry 3 kg/cm2 and for mud, sand and snow 2 kg/cm2.
As Mk V but powered by a Mercedes-Benz OM 352A diesel developing 190 hp at 2,800 rpm.
As Mk VI but fitted with Allison Transmission MT-643 fully automatic transmission.