Type 99/ZTZ99

Manufacturer: NORINCO - China North Industries Group Corporation - CNGC  
Product type: Armoured Vehicles  
Name: Main battle tank  

The ZTZ99 (also known as Type 99, industrial designation WZ123) manufactured by NORINCO is the most advanced main battle tank (MBT) fielded by the PLA. First entering the PLA service in late 2001, the ZTZ99 provides a significant improvement in firepower, mobility, and protection compared to older Chinese-made tanks. As a high-end MBT, the ZTZ99 was only built in a small number (~200) due to its high unit price (~US$1.9 Million in 1999). These tanks are currently deployed by two elite armour regiments in Beijing and Shenyang Military Region respectively. Some of the ZTZ99’s technologies have been used to upgrade the less expensive ZTZ96 MBT.

The ZTZ99 was a direct result of the PLA’s third-generation MBT programme which first commenced in the late 1970s. An early prototype known as Type 90 featuring a Russian-style 125mm gun with autoloader was built and tested in early 1990. However, close observation of the 1990s Gulf War made the PLA realise that the tank was still no match to Western MBT designs such as the M1A1 and Challenger 2. A revised design known as Type 98 featuring a T-72-like hull was first revealed in October 1999 during the national day parade held in Beijing. A further improved variant known as ZTZ99 (originally known as Type 98G) featuring improved armour protection and a more powerful engine was introduced in 2000 and the tank entered service with the PLA in late 2001.

The ZTZ99 MBT shows a mixture of Russian and Western influence in its design and technology. The hull of the tank is very similar to that of the Russian T-72, though the angular welded turret is clearly of Western style. The 125mm smoothbore main gun and the autoloader, which allows the crew of the tank to be reduced to three man, are both believed to be of Soviet/Russian origin. The ZTZ99 carries the Russian 9M119 Refleks (NATO codename: AT-11 Sniper) anti-tank guided missile locally produced in China under license. The tank’s liquid-cooled, turbo-charged diesel engine was said to be based on the German technology.

The ZTZ99 is generally similar to the ZTZ98 (Type 98) MBT, which was briefly displayed during the parade on 1 October 1999 in Beijing to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The ZTZ99 was incorporated with a number of improvements. The vertically faced front armour on the Type 98 turret was replaced by Leopard 2A5-style arrow-shaped spaced add-on armour modules. Externally-mounted explosive reaction armour (ERA) modules were added to the hull front and turret to provide additional protection. The original 1,200hp diesel engine used by the ZTZ98 was replaced by a 1,500hp diesel engine on the ZTZ99.

The hull of the ZTZ99 is very similar to that of the T-72, but is about one metre longer. The tank adopts a conventional layout, with the driving compartment at the front, the fighting compartment in the centre, and the engine compartment at the rear. The turret and hull are of all-welded steel armour construction. The front arc on the turret can be added with a layer of composite armour, or arrow-shaped spaced add-on armour modules. The armour package is of modular design, enabling damaged sections to be replaced or upgrades installed throughout service life. With the arrow-shaped add-on armour modules on the turret front and explosive reactive armour (ERA) modules on the turret and hull, the tank’s front armour protection is equivalent to 1,000~1,200mm of steel armour.

Despite a Western-style welded turret in appearance, the inside layout of the ZTZ99’s turret is very much of Russian style. The ZTZ99 directly inherited the Russian 2A46M autoloader design, with the extra ammunitions placed inside the fighting compartment. This arrangement makes the tank highly vulnerable to catastrophic fire once being penetrated, a lesson learned in many conflicts in which T-72s and T-80s have participated. China has yet been able to produce a Western-style bustle autoloader for its MBT. Tank crew is protected by a over-pressure collective NBC protection and a fully automatic fire suppression system.

Related Articles

QinetiQ and Pratt Miller Deliver First Robotic Combat Vehicle - Light to U.S. Army (02.02.2021)

Military-Industrial Company LLC completed preliminary tests of the Boomerang armored vehicle (06.12.2019)

BAE Systems unveils Robotic Technology Demonstrator Vehicle at AUSA (15.10.2019)

General Dynamics UK selected for Army Warfighting Experiment 2019 (23.09.2019)

Rheinmetall modernizing Puma infantry fighting vehicle and other equipment for NATO spearhead VJTF 2023 (25.07.2019)

U.S. Army awards BAE Systems $45 Million contract for Extended Range Cannon Artillery prototype (22.07.2019)


GCS sets a new standard in mechanical mine clearance (24.05.2019)

AV-8 AENBCRV Vehicle Prepares to Enter Malaysian Army Inventory (29.04.2019)

FNSS Reveals PARS III 8x8 Engineering Vehicle (29.04.2019)

BAE Systems awarded Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle contract modifications by U.S. Army for Low-Rate Initial Production (24.02.2019)

Nerekhta multifunctional UGV on the State tests (05.02.2019)

Problems of Russian Vacuum APFSDS-T projectile (25.01.2019)

Uran-9 Combat Robots began to enter into service in the Armed Forces of Russia (25.01.2019)

U.S. Army awards General Dynamics contract for Mobile Protected Firepower (19.12.2018)

Printable Version Send by email rss favorite Facebook Vkontakte Twitter Google+
Type 99/ZTZ99
Type 99/ZTZ99
Type 99/ZTZ99
Type 99/ZTZ99
Type 99/ZTZ99
Type 99/ZTZ99
Type 99/ZTZ99
Type 99/ZTZ99